Single Machine Multi-GPU Minibatch Node Classification

In this tutorial, you will learn how to use multiple GPUs in training a graph neural network (GNN) for node classification.

This tutorial assumes that you have read the Stochastic GNN Training for Node Classification in DGL. It also assumes that you know the basics of training general models with multi-GPU with DistributedDataParallel.

Note

See this tutorial from PyTorch for general multi-GPU training with DistributedDataParallel. Also, see the first section of the multi-GPU graph classification tutorial for an overview of using DistributedDataParallel with DGL.

Importing Packages

We use torch.distributed to initialize a distributed training context and torch.multiprocessing to spawn multiple processes for each GPU.

import os

os.environ["DGLBACKEND"] = "pytorch"
import time

import dgl.graphbolt as gb
import dgl.nn as dglnn
import torch
import torch.distributed as dist
import torch.multiprocessing as mp
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F
import torchmetrics.functional as MF
import tqdm
from torch.distributed.algorithms.join import Join
from torch.nn.parallel import DistributedDataParallel as DDP

Defining Model

The model will be again identical to Stochastic GNN Training for Node Classification in DGL.

class SAGE(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self, in_size, hidden_size, out_size):
        super().__init__()
        self.layers = nn.ModuleList()
        # Three-layer GraphSAGE-mean.
        self.layers.append(dglnn.SAGEConv(in_size, hidden_size, "mean"))
        self.layers.append(dglnn.SAGEConv(hidden_size, hidden_size, "mean"))
        self.layers.append(dglnn.SAGEConv(hidden_size, out_size, "mean"))
        self.dropout = nn.Dropout(0.5)
        self.hidden_size = hidden_size
        self.out_size = out_size
        # Set the dtype for the layers manually.
        self.float()

    def forward(self, blocks, x):
        hidden_x = x
        for layer_idx, (layer, block) in enumerate(zip(self.layers, blocks)):
            hidden_x = layer(block, hidden_x)
            is_last_layer = layer_idx == len(self.layers) - 1
            if not is_last_layer:
                hidden_x = F.relu(hidden_x)
                hidden_x = self.dropout(hidden_x)
        return hidden_x

Mini-batch Data Loading

The major difference from the previous tutorial is that we will use DistributedItemSampler instead of ItemSampler to sample mini-batches of nodes. DistributedItemSampler is a distributed version of ItemSampler that works with DistributedDataParallel. It is implemented as a wrapper around ItemSampler and will sample the same minibatch on all replicas. It also supports dropping the last non-full minibatch to avoid the need for padding.

def create_dataloader(
    graph,
    features,
    itemset,
    device,
    is_train,
):
    datapipe = gb.DistributedItemSampler(
        item_set=itemset,
        batch_size=1024,
        drop_last=is_train,
        shuffle=is_train,
        drop_uneven_inputs=is_train,
    )
    datapipe = datapipe.copy_to(device, extra_attrs=["seed_nodes"])
    # Now that we have moved to device, sample_neighbor and fetch_feature steps
    # will be executed on GPUs.
    datapipe = datapipe.sample_neighbor(graph, [10, 10, 10])
    datapipe = datapipe.fetch_feature(features, node_feature_keys=["feat"])
    return gb.DataLoader(datapipe)


def weighted_reduce(tensor, weight, dst=0):
    ########################################################################
    # (HIGHLIGHT) Collect accuracy and loss values from sub-processes and
    # obtain overall average values.
    #
    # `torch.distributed.reduce` is used to reduce tensors from all the
    # sub-processes to a specified process, ReduceOp.SUM is used by default.
    #
    # Because the GPUs may have differing numbers of processed items, we
    # perform a weighted mean to calculate the exact loss and accuracy.
    ########################################################################
    dist.reduce(tensor=tensor, dst=dst)
    weight = torch.tensor(weight, device=tensor.device)
    dist.reduce(tensor=weight, dst=dst)
    return tensor / weight

Evaluation Loop

The evaluation loop is almost identical to the previous tutorial.

@torch.no_grad()
def evaluate(rank, model, graph, features, itemset, num_classes, device):
    model.eval()
    y = []
    y_hats = []
    dataloader = create_dataloader(
        graph,
        features,
        itemset,
        device,
        is_train=False,
    )

    for data in tqdm.tqdm(dataloader) if rank == 0 else dataloader:
        blocks = data.blocks
        x = data.node_features["feat"]
        y.append(data.labels)
        y_hats.append(model.module(blocks, x))

    res = MF.accuracy(
        torch.cat(y_hats),
        torch.cat(y),
        task="multiclass",
        num_classes=num_classes,
    )

    return res.to(device), sum(y_i.size(0) for y_i in y)

Training Loop

The training loop is also almost identical to the previous tutorial except that we use Join Context Manager to solve the uneven input problem. The mechanics of Distributed Data Parallel (DDP) training in PyTorch requires the number of inputs are the same for all ranks, otherwise the program may error or hang. To solve it, PyTorch provides Join Context Manager. Please refer to this tutorial for detailed information.

def train(
    world_size,
    rank,
    graph,
    features,
    train_set,
    valid_set,
    num_classes,
    model,
    device,
):
    optimizer = torch.optim.Adam(model.parameters(), lr=0.01)
    # Create training data loader.
    dataloader = create_dataloader(
        graph,
        features,
        train_set,
        device,
        is_train=True,
    )

    for epoch in range(5):
        epoch_start = time.time()

        model.train()
        total_loss = torch.tensor(0, dtype=torch.float, device=device)
        num_train_items = 0
        with Join([model]):
            for data in tqdm.tqdm(dataloader) if rank == 0 else dataloader:
                # The input features are from the source nodes in the first
                # layer's computation graph.
                x = data.node_features["feat"]

                # The ground truth labels are from the destination nodes
                # in the last layer's computation graph.
                y = data.labels

                blocks = data.blocks

                y_hat = model(blocks, x)

                # Compute loss.
                loss = F.cross_entropy(y_hat, y)

                optimizer.zero_grad()
                loss.backward()
                optimizer.step()

                total_loss += loss * y.size(0)
                num_train_items += y.size(0)

        # Evaluate the model.
        if rank == 0:
            print("Validating...")
        acc, num_val_items = evaluate(
            rank,
            model,
            graph,
            features,
            valid_set,
            num_classes,
            device,
        )
        total_loss = weighted_reduce(total_loss, num_train_items)
        acc = weighted_reduce(acc * num_val_items, num_val_items)

        # We synchronize before measuring the epoch time.
        torch.cuda.synchronize()
        epoch_end = time.time()
        if rank == 0:
            print(
                f"Epoch {epoch:05d} | "
                f"Average Loss {total_loss.item():.4f} | "
                f"Accuracy {acc.item():.4f} | "
                f"Time {epoch_end - epoch_start:.4f}"
            )

Defining Traning and Evaluation Procedures

The following code defines the main function for each process. It is similar to the previous tutorial except that we need to initialize a distributed training context with torch.distributed and wrap the model with torch.nn.parallel.DistributedDataParallel.

def run(rank, world_size, devices, dataset):
    # Set up multiprocessing environment.
    device = devices[rank]
    torch.cuda.set_device(device)
    dist.init_process_group(
        backend="nccl",  # Use NCCL backend for distributed GPU training
        init_method="tcp://127.0.0.1:12345",
        world_size=world_size,
        rank=rank,
    )

    # Pin the graph and features in-place to enable GPU access.
    graph = dataset.graph.pin_memory_()
    features = dataset.feature.pin_memory_()
    train_set = dataset.tasks[0].train_set
    valid_set = dataset.tasks[0].validation_set
    num_classes = dataset.tasks[0].metadata["num_classes"]

    in_size = features.size("node", None, "feat")[0]
    hidden_size = 256
    out_size = num_classes

    # Create GraphSAGE model. It should be copied onto a GPU as a replica.
    model = SAGE(in_size, hidden_size, out_size).to(device)
    model = DDP(model)

    # Model training.
    if rank == 0:
        print("Training...")
    train(
        world_size,
        rank,
        graph,
        features,
        train_set,
        valid_set,
        num_classes,
        model,
        device,
    )

    # Test the model.
    if rank == 0:
        print("Testing...")
    test_set = dataset.tasks[0].test_set
    test_acc, num_test_items = evaluate(
        rank,
        model,
        graph,
        features,
        itemset=test_set,
        num_classes=num_classes,
        device=device,
    )
    test_acc = weighted_reduce(test_acc * num_test_items, num_test_items)

    if rank == 0:
        print(f"Test Accuracy {test_acc.item():.4f}")

Spawning Trainer Processes

The following code spawns a process for each GPU and calls the run function defined above.

def main():
    if not torch.cuda.is_available():
        print("No GPU found!")
        return

    devices = [
        torch.device(f"cuda:{i}") for i in range(torch.cuda.device_count())
    ]
    world_size = len(devices)

    print(f"Training with {world_size} gpus.")

    # Load and preprocess dataset.
    dataset = gb.BuiltinDataset("ogbn-arxiv").load()

    # Thread limiting to avoid resource competition.
    os.environ["OMP_NUM_THREADS"] = str(mp.cpu_count() // 2 // world_size)

    mp.set_sharing_strategy("file_system")
    mp.spawn(
        run,
        args=(world_size, devices, dataset),
        nprocs=world_size,
        join=True,
    )


if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()

Out:

No GPU found!

Total running time of the script: ( 0 minutes 0.284 seconds)

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